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Rights and Law regarding marriage

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Rights and Law regarding marriage

Rights and Law

Reproductive rights

Reproductive rights are legal rights and freedoms related to reproduction and reproductive health. These include the right to make decisions about the number of children born, family planning, contraception, and private life, free from coercion and discrimination. According to the UNFPA, reproductive rights include "the right to determine the number, timing and spacing of children, the right to voluntarily marry and found a family, and the right to the highest attainable, standards of health, among others". Family planning refers to factors that can be considered by individuals and couples in order to control their fertility, predict and achieve the desired number of children and the spacing of their births and can get the time.

The state and the church have been, and still are in some countries, involved in controlling the size of families, often using coercive methods such as contraception or bans on abortion through or conversely, discriminatory policies against large families or even forced abortions (for example, China's one-child policy from 1978 to 2015). Forced sterilization has often targeted ethnic minority groups, such as Roma women in Eastern Europe, or indigenous women in Peru (during the 1990s).

Father's rights

Parental Rights Movement A movement whose members are primarily interested in issues related to parents and family law related to children, particularly the rights and responsibilities of parents. The maternal rights movement focuses on maternal health, workplace issues such as labor rights, breastfeeding and rights in family law. The Father's Rights Movement is a movement whose members are primarily interested in issues related to family law, including child custody and child support, to fathers and their affected children.

Marriage rights

Each jurisdiction has its own marriage laws. These laws vary greatly from country to country; And these laws are often controversial. Areas of controversy include women's rights as well as same-sex marriage.

Legal reform

During the last few decades, there have been legal reforms in family laws in many countries. These were mainly related to gender equality within marriage and divorce laws. Overturning old family laws based on the dominant legal role of the husband, many countries have given women equal rights in marriage. Coverture, which had been embedded in the common law of England and America for several centuries and through most of the 19th century, was abolished. In some European countries, the changes towards gender equality were slow. The period 1975-1979 saw a major change in family laws in countries such as Italy, Spain, Austria, Germany, and Portugal. In 1978, the Council of Europe adopted Resolution (78) 37 on the equality of husband and wife in civil law. Switzerland was one of the last European countries to establish full gender equality in marriage. In 1985, a referendum guaranteed women legal equality with men within marriage. New reforms came into effect in January 1988. In Greece, in 1983, a law was passed guaranteeing equality between husband and wife, the abolition of dowry and the end of legal discrimination against illegitimate children. In 1981, Spain abolished the requirement that married women submit to their husbands to initiate legal proceedings in the 1980s the Netherlands, and France must be allowed. In recent decades, marital power has also been abolished in African countries that had this principle, but many African countries that were former French colonies still have discriminatory marriage laws, such as those originating in the Napoleonic Code. There are those who inspired these laws. Divorce was recently legalized in some (mainly Roman Catholic) countries (e.g. Italy (1970), Portugal (1975), Brazil (1977), Spain (1981), Argentina (1987), Ireland (1996), Chile (2004) and Malta (2011)) although annulment and legal separation were options. The Philippines still does not allow divorce. (See divorce laws by country). Laws relating to the status of children born out of wedlock have also been revised in many countries.




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